The Linnaeus’s Reed Snake, Calamaria linnaei Boie (Squamata: Colubridae: Calamariinae) from Ijen Plateau, East Java, Indonesia

Irvan Sidik, Sutiman Bambang Sumitro, Nia Kurniawan


The decisive morphological character of Calamaria linnaei from the Ijen plateau was analyzed in an attempt to evaluate these snakes independently achieved as different populations or whether more likely only cryptic species affected by natural conditions. The evidence was concluded that a cryptic species is very interesting to be regarded as something entirely different. In general, however, the population appears to have more closely related to other congeners populations of the same species. It is suggested that at least temporarily, the C. linnaei population of the Ijen plateau be specifically considered to include in species with high individual variations based on limited geographic boundaries until molecular analysis proves it.


Calamaria; Biogeography; Morphology; Snake; Taxonomy

Full Text:



Bechtel, H.B. 1978. Color and pattern in snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 12, 521- 532.

Bickford, D., Lohman, D.J., Sodhi, N.S., Ng, P.K.L., Meier, R., Winker, K., Ingram, K. K., and Das, I. 2006. Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.22 No.3.

Boulenger, G.A. (1894). Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum. Pp. 353. Natural History. London.

Castoe, T. A., Daza, J. M., Smith, E. N., Sasa, M. M., Kuch, U., Campbell, J. A., Chippindale, P. T., and Parkinson, C. L. 2009. Comparative phylogeography of pitvipers suggests a consensus of ancient Middle American highland biogeography. J. Biogeogr. 36:88–103.

De Rooij, N. (1917). The Reptiles of The Indo-Australian Archipelago II. Ophidia. Pp. 124. EJ. Brill. Leiden.

Duméril, A.M.C., Bibron, G., and Duméril, A.H.A. (1854). Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Première partie [Volume 7, Part 1], : xvi + 780 pp. Paris.

Dwight, R. Platt. 1983. Heterodon Latreille Hognose snakes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 315.1-2.

Granath, J. W., Christ, J. M., Emmet, P. A., and Dinkelman. M. G. 2011. Pre-Cenozoic sedimentary section and structure as reflected in the JavaSPAN TM crustal-scale PSDM seismic survey, and its implications regarding the basement terranes in the East Java Sea. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v.355, p53-74. 1978.

doi: 10.1144/SP355.4

Grismer, L. L., Kaiser, H., and Yaakob, N. S. 2004. A new species of reed snake of the genus Calamaria H. Boie, 1827, from pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Hamadryad, Vol. 28, Nos. 1 & 2.

Hodges, R. 1993. Snakes of Java with special reference to east java province. The British Herpetology Society Bulletin. No. 3. London.

Huey, R.B., and Pianka, E.R. 1981. Ecological consequences of foraging mode. Ecology, 62,991-999.

Inger, R.F. and H. Marx. (1965) The systematics and evolution of the Oriental colubrid snakes of the genus Calamaria. Fieldiana Zoology, 49, 1–304.

Iskandar, D.T. and E. Colijn. (2001). A Checklist of Southeast Asian and New Guinean Reptiles. Part I: Serpentes. Binamitra. Jakarta.

Jackson, J.F., Ingram, III. W., and Campbell, H.W. 1976. The Dorsal Pigmentation Pattern Of Snakes As An Antipredator Strategy: A Multivariate Approach. The American Naturalist, 10(976):1029-1053.

Leviton, A. E., Brown, R. M., and Cameron, D.S. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago with identification keys and species accounts. The Coral Triangle: Hearst Biodiversity Expedition. Pp. 475-530. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California.

Maholtra, A. and Thorpe, R. S. Maximizing information in systematic revisions_a combined molecular and morphological analysis of a cryptic green pitviper complex (Trimeresurus stejnegeri). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 82, 219–235.

Mebert, K. 2011. Sexual Dimorphism in the Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata) from the Central Alps. Mertensiella. 18: 94-99.

Orlov, N.L., Nguyen, T.Q., Nguyen, T.T., Ananjeva, N.B., Ho, C.T. 2010. A new species of the genus Calamaria (Squamata: Ophidia: Colubridae) from thua thien-hue province, Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology. Vol. 17, No. 3, 2010, pp. 236 – 242.

Peters, J.A. 1964. Dictionary of Herpetology. Pp. 87-153. Hafner Publishing Company, New York and London.

Schätti, B. and McCarthy, C. 1987. Relationsips of the snake genera Pythonodipsas and Spalerosophis. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 38 (3): 265-268.

The Reptile Database [] accessed 1 April 2017.

Wareham, D. C. 2005. Elsevier's Dictionary of Herpetological and Related Terminology. Pp. 240. Bournemouth, England.

Wiens, J. J. 2007. Species Delimitation New Approaches for Discovering Diversity. Syst. Biol. 56(6)875–878, 2007.

Zahirovic, S., Matthews, K. J., Flament, N., Müller, R. D., Hill, K. C., Setona, M., and Gurnis, M. 2016. Tectonic evolution and deep mantle structure of the eastern Tethys since. Earth-Science Reviews 162. 293–337.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.