The Effect of Water Treatment Models to Reduce Lead (Pb) Level on Freshwater Snail Filopaludina javanica

Diana Arfiati, Nur Syahid, Zaki Anwari, Aminin Aminin, Kusriani Kusriani, Endang Yuli Herawati, Asthervina Widyastami Puspitasari


Lead is a kind of non-essential heavy metals included in the metal causing environmental pollution with persistent properties that might harm the consumers. This study aimed to determine the best method for reducing the lead level on the freshwater snail Filopaludina javanica using three various water treatment models. Soaking water treatment (6h, 12h, 18h, 24h), flowing water treatment (6h, 12h, 18h, 24h), and refreshing water treatment (6h, 12h, 24h). The lead level assay in both samples used Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the physical and chemical parameters were measured, such as temperature, pH, and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The lowest value of lead content on freshwater’s soft body snail and water sample respectively were soaking water treatment at 6h (0.64 ± 0.02 mg L-1) and 24h (0.0045 ± 0.0015 mg L-1); flowing water treatment at 24h (0.04 ± 0.007 mg L-1) and 18h (0.0036 ± 0.0009 mg L-1) and; refreshing water treatment at 24h (0.150 ± 0.011) and 12h (0.007 ± 0.001), with control 0.072 ± 0.00 mg L-1 and 0.067 ± 0.00 mg L-1. Therefore, the most effective model to reduce the lead content was flowing water treatment within 24h in the freshwater soft body snail and 18h in the water sample.


Environmental pollution, Filopaludina javanica, lead, water treatment

Full Text:



Ayangbenro A. S, Babalola, O. O. (2017). A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: a review of microbial biosorbents. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(1), 94.

Calow, P. (1991). Physiological costs of combating chemical toxicants: ecological implications. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Comparative Pharmacology, 100(1-2), 3-6.

Di Toro, D. M., Allen, H. E., Bergman, H. L., Meyer, J. S., Paquin, P. R., & Santore, R. C. (2001). Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(10), 2383-2396.

Edokpayi, J. N., Odiyo, J. O., Popoola, O. E., Msagati, T. A. (2016). Assessment of Trace metals contamination of surface water and sediment: A case study of Mvudi River, South Africa. Sustainability, 8(2), 135.

Fashola, M. O., Ngole-Jeme, V. M., Babalola, O. O. (2016). Heavy metal pollution from gold mines: environmental effects and bacterial strategies for resistance. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(11), 1047.

Federer, H. (2014). Geometric measure theory: Springer.

Lefcort, H., Cleary, D. A., Marble, A. M., Phillips, M. V., Stoddard, T. J., Tuthill, L. M., Winslow, J. R. (2015). Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity. SpringerPlus, 4(1), 267.

Mani, D., Kumar, C. (2014). Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: an overview with special reference to phytoremediation. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(3), 843-872.

Mupa, M., Dzomba, P., Musekiwa, C., Muchineripi, R. (2013). Lead content of lichens in metropolitan Harare, Zimbabwe: Air quality and health risk implications. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety, 2(2), 075-082.

Nagajyoti, P., Lee, K., Sreekanth, T. (2010). Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environmental chemistry letters, 8(3), 199-216.

National Strategy and Action Plan. (2015). National Strategy and Action Plan: Indonesia 2012-2015. National Strategy and Action Plan. Indonesia

Okland, J. (1983). Factors regulating the distribution of freshwater snails (Gastropoda) in Norway. Malacologia, 24(1-2), 277-288.

Oros, A., & Gomoiu, M.-T. (2010). Comparative data on the accumulation of five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead) in some marine species (molluscs, fish) from the Romanian sector of the Black Sea. Cercetari Marine, 39, 89-108.

Piyatiratitivorakul, P., Boonchamoi, P. 2008. Comparative toxicity of mercury and cadmium to the juvenile freshwater snail, Filopaludina martensi. Sci. Asia, 34(4), 367-370.

Raddum, G. G., Fjellheim, A., Hesthagen, T. (1988). Monitoring of acidification by the use of aquatic organisms: With 3 figures and 1 table in the text. SIL Proceedings, 1922-2010. Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 23(4), 2291-2297.

Rainbow, P. S. (2002). Physiology, physicochemistry and the uptake of dissolved trace metals by crustaceans. Paper presented at the CIESM Workshop Monographs.

Rainbow, P. S. (2007). Trace metal bioaccumulation: models, metabolic availability and toxicity. Environment international, 33(4), 576-582.

Reinfelder, J. R., Fisher, N. S., Luoma, S. N., Nichols, J. W., & Wang, W.-X. (1998). Trace element trophic transfer in aquatic organisms: a critique of the kinetic model approach. Science of the Total Environment, 219(2-3), 117-135.

Santore, R. C., Di Toro, D. M., Paquin, P. R., Allen, H. E., & Meyer, J. S. (2001). Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 2. Application to acute copper toxicity in freshwater fish and Daphnia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(10), 2397-2402.

Seuffert, M. E., Martín, P. R. (2017). Thermal limits for the establishment and growth of populations of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. Biological Invasions, 19(4), 1169-1180.

Setyaningsih, L., Setiadi, Y., Budi, S. W., Hamim, H. & Sopandie, D. (2018). Jabon (Anthocephalus Cadamba Roxb) Potency for Remediating Lead (Pb) Toxicity Under Nutrient Culture Condition. BIOTROPIA, 25(1), 64-71.

Sibly, R. M., Calow P. (1989). A life-cycle theory of responses to stress. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 37(1-2), 101-116.

Tchounwou, P. B., Yedjou C. G., Patlolla A. K., Sutton D. J. (2012). Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, 101, 133-64. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6.

Tessier L, Vaillancourt G, Pazdernik L. (1994). Temperature effects on cadmium and mercury kinetics in freshwater molluscs under laboratory conditions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26(2), 179-184.

Tiwari, S., Tripathi, I. P., & Tiwari, H. L. (2013). Effects of Lead on Environment. International journal of emerging research in management & technology, 2(6), 1-5.

Tong, S., Schirnding, Y. E. V., Prapamontol, T. (2000). Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(9), 1068-1077.

Wuana, R. A., Okieimen, F. E. (2011). Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology, 2011, 1-20.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.