Antioxidant Effect of Centella asiatica Ethanolic Extract to Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Level on Cyprinus carpio Liver

Diklawati Jatayu, Happy Nursyam, Asus Maizar Suryanto Hertika


Centella asiatica is a herbal medicine has been used for many studies in some animals as antioxidant properties. This study was aimed to enhance the level of SOD in Cyprinus carpio after oral administration of C. asiatica extract. In the present study, phytochemical screening of bioactive constituents, antioxidant assay, and their effect on SOD in C. carpio liver were investigated. C. asiatica extract was obtained by maseration for 24 h using ethanol as a solvent. C. asiatica extract with 50, 100, 150 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight were administered every 3 days for two weeks. On the last day of experiment, fishes were killed and liver were removed from the body. The results showed that C. asiatica extract had some bioactive compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, terpenoid, tanin, saponin and DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 125 μg mL-1. C. asiatica extract also enhanced the level of SOD in fish liver. The SOD level was significantly difference compared to the control group with P<005. These results indicate that the ethanolic extract of C. asiatica had a potential antioxidant properties by scavenging free radical and enhancing the SOD level as antioxidant deffense inside the body.


Centella asiatica Linn; Antioxidant; DPPH; SOD; Cyprinus carpio L.

Full Text:



Aizad, S., N. M. Khairiri, B. H. Yahaya, and S. I. Zubairi. 2017. A Novel Anti-Proliferative Activity (EC50) of Pegaga (Centella Asiatica) Extract Through In Vitro 3-D Culture Microenvironment. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering), 79(2):1–10.

Andarwulan, N., R. Batari, D. A. Sandrasari, B. Bolling, H. Wijaya. 2010. Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia. Food Chemistry, 121(4):1231–1235.

Arab, F., I. Alamzadeh, and V. Maghsoudi. 2011. Determination of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract. Scientia Iranica C., 18(6):1402-1406.

Atanassova, M., S. Georgieva, and K. Ivancheva. 2011. Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Contents, Antioxidant Capacity and Biological Contaminants in Medicinal Herbs. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 46(1):81-88.

Babu, T. D. and Paddikkala J. 1994. DNA fragmentation in Ehrlich Ascites tumour cells by extract of herbal plant Centella asiatica (L.). Amala Res Bull., 14:52-56.

Chan, K. W., S. Iqbal, N. M. H. Khong, D. J. Ooi, and M. Ismail. 2014. Antioxidant activity of phenolics saponins rich fraction prepared from defatted kenaf seed meal. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 56(1):181-186.

Chippada, S. C. and M. Vangalapati. 2011. Antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Centella asiatica extracts. J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci., 1:260−269.

Cho, W. S., and W. K. Yong. 2011. Antioxidant properties of two species of Hylocereus fruits. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2(3):418-425.

Choi, M., H. Zhengg, J. M. Kim, K. W. Lee, Y. H. Park, and D. H. Lee. 2016. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in rats. Molecular Medicine Reports, 14(5):4521-4528.

Cui, W. H., K. Iwasa, H. Tokuda, A. Kashihara, Y. Mitani, T. Hasegawa, Y. Nishiyama, M. Moriyasu, H. Nishino, M. Hanaoka, C. Mukai and K. Takeda. 2006. Potential cancer chemopreventive activity of simple isoquinolines,I-benzylisoquinolinjes, and protoberberines. Phytochemistry, 67(1): 70-79.

De Groot, H. 1994. Reactive oxygen species in tissue injury. Hepatogastroenterology, 41(4): 328–332.

Durak, I,. O. Canbolat, M. Kavutcu, H. S. Ozturk, and Z. Yurtarslani. 1996. Activities of total, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase enzymes in sera and pleural fluids from patients with lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 10(1): 17-20.

Eloff, J. N. 1998. Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 60(1): 1–8.

Fang, Y. Z., S. Yang, and G. Wu. 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants and nutrition. Nutrition, 18(10): 872-879

Gill, S. S., and N. Tuteja. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem., 48(12):909–930.

Gu, H. F., C. M. Li, Y. J. Xu, W. F. Hu, M. H. Chen, and Q. H. Wan. 2008. Structural features and antioxidant activity of tannin from persimmon pulp. Food Research International, 41(2):208–217.

Hagerman, A. E., K. M. Riedl, G. A. Jones, K. N. Sovik, N. T. Ritchard, P. W. Hartzfeld, and T. L. Riechel. 1998. High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5):1887–1892.

Hanasaki, Y., S. Ogawa, and S. Fukui. 1994. The correlation between active oxygens scavenging and antioxidative effects of flavonoids. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 16(6):845–850.

Harborne, A. J. 1998. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Springer science & business media: Netherlands. 302 pp.

Hashim, P., H. Sidek, M. H. M. Helan, A. Sabery, U. D. Palanisamy, and M. Ilham. 2011. Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica. Molecules, 16(2): 1310-1322.

Hasim, F. S., R. D. Ayunda, and D. N. Faridah. 2015. Potential of lemongrass leaves extract (Cymbopogon citratus) as prevention for oil oxidation. J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 7(10):55-60.

Hussin, M., A. Abdul-hamid, S. Mohamad, N. Saari, M. Ismail, and M. H. Bejo. 2007. Protective Effect of Centella asiatica Extract And Powder On Oxidative Stress In Rats. Food Chem., 100(2): 535-41.

Jayathirtha, M. G., and S. H. Mishra. 2004. Preliminary immunomodulatory activities of methanol extracts of Eclipta alba and Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine, 11(4):361-365.

Katare, S. S., and M. S. Ganachari. 2001. Effect of Centella asiatica on hypoxia induced convulsions and lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and anti lipidperoxidation activity. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 33(2):128.

Kedare, S. B. and R. P. Singh. 2011. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay. Food Sci. Technol., 48(4):412–422.

Kepekci, R. A., S. Polat, A. Elik, N. Bayat, and S. D. Saygideger. 2013. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis enriched in phenolic compounds against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. Food Chem. 141(3):1972–1979.

Killedar, S., N. More, G. Shah, and S. Gaikwad. 2014. Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Memecylon Umbellatum Root Extracts. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(6):5988-5996.

Korkina, L. G. and I. B. Afanasev. 1996. Antioxidant and chelating properties of flavonoids. Adv. Pharmacol., 38:151–163.

Kregel, K. C., and H. J. Zhang. 2007. An integrated view of oxidative stress in aging: basic mechanisms, functional effects, and pathological considerations. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 292(1):R18-R36.

Kumar, V., and Y. K. Gupta. 2002. Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol, 79: 253–260.

Kumar, V., V. Babu, K. Nagarajan, L. Machawal, and U. Bajaj. 2015. Protective effects of Centella asiatica against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats: biochemical, mitochondrial and histological findings. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 4(2): 80-86

Kundu, S., S. M. Haque, and B. Ghosh. 2015. Comparative analysis of bioactive compounds in different habitat of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: Application for in vitro clonal propagation of elite ecotype. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 5(2):030-036.

Malhi, H., and G. J. Gores. 2008. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver injury. Gastroenterology, 134(6):1641–1654.

Mohamed, F. A. 2009. Histopathological studies on Tilapia zillii and Soleavulguris from lake Qarun, Egypt. World J. Fish and Mari. Sci., 1:29-39.

Molyneux, P. 2004. The use of the stable free radical (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 26(2):211-219.

Mustafa, R. A., A. A. Hamid, S. Mohamed, and F. A. Bakar. 2010. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants. J. Food Sci., 75(1):C28-C35.

Ncube, N. S., A. J. Afolayan, and A. I. Okoh. 2008. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(12): 1797-1806.

Oroian, M., and I. Escriche. 2015. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis. Food Res. Int., 74:10-36.

Parry, J., L. Su, M. Luther, K. Q. Zhou, M. P. Yurawecz, P. Whittaker, and L. L. Yu. 2005. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of coldpressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(3):566–573.

Pittella, F., R. C. Dutra, D. D. Junior, M. T. P. Lopes, and N. R. Barbosa. 2009. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. International Journal of Molecular Science, 10(9): 3713-3721.

Prakash, A. 2001. Antioxidant activity. Med Lab Anal Prog 19(2):1–6.

Prior, R. L., X. Wu, and K. Schaich. 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agri. Food Chem., 53(10):4290–4302.

Rahman, M., S. Hossain, A. Rahaman, N. Fatima, T. Nahar, B. Uddin, and M. A. Basunia. 2013. Antioxidant Activity of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban: Impact of Extraction Solvent Polarity. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(6):2278-4136.

Scandalios, J. G. 2005. Oxidative stress: molecular perception and transduction of signals triggering antioxidant gene defenses. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 38(7): 995–1014.

Sendra, J. M., E. Sentandreu, and J. L. Navarro. 2006. Reduction kinetics of the free stable radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) for determination of the antiradical activity of citrus juices. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 223(5):615–624.

Shukla, A., A. M. Rasik, and B. N. Dhawan. 1999. Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds. Phytother. Res., 13(1):50-54.

Singh, S., A. Gautam, A. Sharma and A. Batra. 2010. Centella Asiatica (L.): A Plant With Immense Medicinal Potential But Threatened. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 4(2):9-17.

Sivakumar, V., A. M. Sadiq, and S. D. Bharathi. 2018. Hepatoprotective activity of Centella asiatica linn. against paracetamol induced liver damage in experimental animals. Emer. Life Sci. Res., 4(1): 19-26.

Subban, R., A. Veerakumar, R. Manimaran, K. M. Hashim, and I. Balachandran. 2008. Two new flavonoids from Centella asiatica (Linn.). J. Nat. Med. 62:369-373.

Tiwari, P., B. Kumar, M. Kaur, G. Kaur, and H. Kaur. 2011. Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia, 1(1):98-106.

Upadhyay, S. K., A. Saha, B. Bhatia, and K. S. Kulkarni. 2002. Evaluation of the efficacy of mental in children with learning disability Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind clinical C. asiatica. Neurosciences Today, 6:184-188.

Valko, M., D. Leibfritz, J. Moncola, M.T.D. Cronin, M. Mazura, and J. Telser. 2007. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 39:44–84.

Wang, X., Q. Dong, J. P. Zuo, and J. N. Frong. 2003. Structures and potential immunological activity of a pectin from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Carbohydr Res., 338 (22):2393-2402.

Young, I. S., and J. V. Woodside. 2001. Antioxidants in health and disease. J. Clin. Pathol., 54(3):176–186.

Yu, L. L. 2001. Free radical scavenging properties of conjugated linoleic acids. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49(7):3452–3456.

Zhao, Y., P. Shu, Y. Zhang, L. Lin, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, D. Suo, A. Xie, and X. Jin. 2014. Effect of Centella asiatica on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic animal models. Oxid Med. Cell Longev., 1−7.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.